Over the past 20 years, The Association of the East Asian Social Thoughts has been tried to cover the classics and the philosophy of the East Asian Social Thoughts along with the theoretical framework of the Standard Sociological tradition. In this study, I’m trying to show how we can move forward based on those thoughts.
This research orientation of The Association of the East Asian Social Thoughts is the work of planning and implementing the new thinking systems and academic frameworks. In the meantime, Korean sociology is confined to the context of the United States, Europe, China and Japan. It is also a reflection of the fact that it was immersed in the so-called discourse of modernity and failed to develop the method of reading the classics. For those reasons, The Association of the East Asian Social Thoughts has been reflected on ‘In what context are we confined?’.
The academic research or cultivation of The Association of the East Asian Social Thoughts are trying to go beyond the category of western centered ‘study as a profession’ at least. This attempt is simply acquiring knowledge and reaching the point that is off the discussion of the existing production-consumption theory.
On the basis of such cultivation and orientation, we intend to thoroughly study and analyze the western-centered standard sociological framework. At the same time, as studying and reinterpreting ‘Asian Value’ or the philosophy of the East Asian Social Thoughts, academic universality and global standard that are integrating both sides should be measured. As discovering and developing specific research topics and tasks of the East Asian Social Thought from our perspective, it should interpret and set up the new outline through sociology or the social science’s objective concept, grammar and framework. There is no need to deny the strictness of the western standard sociological framework. There is also no need to contradict the so-called “The law of game” against the discourse system of philosophy and ideology, which is hardly followed in Western theoretical frameworks. It is necessary to overcome the so-called “Invented Tradition” that is not inherent in the original value system, philosophy, and ideology of the East Asian Social Thoughts and its derived discourses, and move on to new reflective planning.
A Study on the Modern Application of Social Welfare Value Inherent in Bohyeonhaengwonpum: Focusing on the Ten Practices and Vows of Bohyeonhaengwonpum
보현행원품에 내재된 사회복지 가치의 현대적 적용에 관한 연구: 보현행원품의 십종행원을 중심으로
This study understood the social welfare value inherent in Avatamsaka Sutra focusing on the Ten Practices and Vows of Bohyeonhaengwonpum. As a sutra that has been recited the most in Korea, Bohyeonhaengwonpum of Avatamsaka Sutra representing Mahayana sutras is a sutra that preaches the practices and vows of Samantabhadra. In Korea, the practices and vows of Samantabhadra have been especially considered as important since early times. Buddhism, regarded them as special enough to spread them by publishing Bohyeonhaengwonpum as a book separate from Avatamsaka Sutra. Bohyeonhaengwonpum concretely preaching the life of seeking for the truth of Samantabhadra, preaches ten large practices and vows. These Ten Practices and Vows contain an earnest hope for practicing the Bodhisattva Practice to respect/save the world just like Samantabhadra praises and respects Buddha, which fully contains the social welfare value pursued by modern society. Thus, this study examined the relations between the Ten Practices and Vows of Bohyeonhaengwonpum and social welfare value, and moreover, analyzed the meanings by combining the code of ethics for social workers of Korea, in order to understand the modern applicability of social welfare value inherent in the Ten Practices and Vows. In the results of this study, total nine practices and vows out of Ten Practices and Vows of Bohyeonhaengwonpum had relations with human dignity, equality, social solidarity, and self-determination of social welfare value. And the detailed contents of the code of ethics for social workers fully contain the social welfare value of the Ten Practices and Vows. Based on such results of this study, the implications were suggested to seek for the new direction of thought and practice of Buddhistic social welfare, by combining Orientalism with social welfare value and thought that has focused on Western thought. First, the interactions between Western thought and Orientalism would be needed. Second, there should be more researches on the oriental social welfare thought and value focusing on Buddhism and Confucianism. Third, the religious body and operating corporation should establish active educational plans to provide the education for cultivating the social welfare value of Buddhist sutras like Bohyeonhaengwonpum to employees of Buddhist social welfare institutes.
Bright Integration and Poor Individuals: For the Sake of Individualism and Minimalism
‘Integration’ and ‘solidarity’ may be one of the most commonly used words in sociology. The popular spread of certain terms is clearly the result of 'the social' and therefore social gains in integration are rarely seen as fortuitous. In this article, I note the existence of 'norms' behind this phenomenon and its social forces. Therefore, I would like to critically examine the demand of integration imposed like a categorical imperatives, particularly the structure of existential oppression on its roots and the tragic situation of individuals suffering from it.
The scent of community or brotherhood penetrates all of classical sociology, including Marx and Durkheim. Durkheim's collective consciousness and Marx's brotherhood were no different indeed, and were an important source of collective normality in the nature of sociology. The norm was the driving force behind criticism of the reality unique to sociology, as well as the parent of sociological vision. But if this normative force is locked in the meaningful world of normality itself or absoluteizes the world, it can be called a knife to oppression and violence. And at the end of the knife, there must be a repressed ‘personal’. Nevertheless, individual existence in both social studies and daily life has tended to be treated as an abstraction, or a dependent variable, which has been subjugated to the group. It seems that we need to learn about individuals now.
As much as we see individuals from society, we need to start from individuals and understand them. This is not only the self-director of the self-styled individual but also a methodological shift in perspective. To do so, the first thing that needs to be done is to remove the tents of groups and norms and face the existence of individuals honestly. Of course, it is absolutely necessary to face the basic conditions of human existence, especially the underlying tension with others.
Thoughts on the Stratum of Basic Income Focusing on the Dasan(茶山) Jeong Yakyong’s Theory on Land Reform
The basic income discourse is a kind of process, which is disassembling the way of life that suffocating humanity and personality such as inequality, gap, isolation and the existence of exclusion, and reuse our social relations by collecting the remaining hope of life. Nevertheless, the basic income discussion does not clearly explain the human nature of the desire for basic income or the outlook that justify the institutionalization of basic income.
Moreover, the basic income argument is derived from the limited experience of a particular time and space of Modern Western capitalism. Thus, in order for basic income theory to ensure universality, it is necessary to reconstruct the historical origins, periodical changes, and ideological meaning of the problem solving experience across the ages and countries of the world at first, and reproduce it to the modern languages on the basis of this. To that end, we should find out ideal text of basic income that seeks to protect ‘human being’ from the crisis of humanity and personality through time and space, and we should reread it in a modern view. This intellectual work also embodies the sedimentary pathways of historical strata that have evolved into the current pattern of social security, basic income.
In this way, this article reinterpret the Dasan Jeong Yakyong’s theory on Land Reform as a historical stratum of basic income theory. Dasan’s theory of ‘YeoJeon(閭田)’ and ‘Jeongjeon(井田)’ is closely connected to the way of solving problems in our real life with the language of the study of Confucian classics(經學) and statecraft(經世論). Furthermore, Dasan’s Land Reform outlines the implications to refine the ideological and logical precision of basic income theory.
The Study of the Commutation Principles (of General rule) in T’ang Code
General rule in T’ang Code is characterized by the Confucian Criminal law. The Criminal law in School of Law(法家) applies uniformly and was placed at the end. But in T’ang Code The exception principle was first put. The exception principle in School of Law had become a general principle in T’ang Code
The commutation Principles of General rule lies not only in the protection of the identity system but also in the protection of the family system. In addition, the principle was to protect disadvantaged groups.
These principles provide important implications for the current criminal law. It is necessary to subdivide the type of crime to reduce the scope of the statutory form. In order to be a good criminal law, we must reflect the value of the society we aim at.
Inequality in the Era of Robot: Future of Work, Future of Society
This research explores inequalities that are deepening in the era of the fourth industrial revolution represented by robots and artificial intelligence. First of all, the core of science and technology change that is taking place is artificial intelligence automation. Attention is paid to the emergence of precariat(unstable workers) and economic monopolies on a global scale resulting from the deepening and spread of digital technology. This paper examines the characteristics of inequalities developed in this aspect from the viewpoint of both captal-biased technological change (CBTC) and skill-biased technological change (SBTC). It focuses on changes in the socio-economic system and on the labor world rather than on the technological changes caused by artificial intelligence automation. In dong so, the paper confirms that the latest changes caused by the economic system of Korean society are similar to the inequalities in the world. Then, the paper summarizes the causes of deepening inequality around the world in robot age as CBTC, SBTC, and the emergence of superstars at both individual and company level. In this process, globalization, the rise of robots, and the expansion of monopolies are intertwined. And the paper identifies that the rapid development of digital technology, which is based on artificial intelligence robot automation, is working with such causes. Next, we discuss the debate on how to cope with such inequalities in terms of CBTC and SBTC. After examining the differences according to different views on current inequality, the paper sees that resolving the current inequality is no longer a matter of more economic value production. It is now a matter of politics because it has become a matter of distribution. Finally, this study discusses the task of transforming the perspective of human labor in the industrial age centered on economic value. The task is to change the view on work and society from economic values to social values. I conclude this study by presenting new possibilities for the future of the work and the future of society centered on these discussions.