This article reconstructs the core of system theoretical-constructivist conflict theory, and suggests that this approach can analyze the structure and dynamics of realistic conflict to analyze the structure of realistic relations. The theory notes that the operation of observing is not an outcome of an entity named as the subject. The operation can be realized as a result of the co-production of the social, temporal, and factual dimension. The operation of observing results from the social dimension between the alter ego and ego, the factual dimension between what is excluded and what is included, and the temporal dimension produced by choosing the after rather than the before. The observing operation also enables system theoretical-constructivist general conflict theory in that it consciousness and communication can be analyzed as cases of autopoietic systems. In addition, positives and negatives are mutually opposite part, which are created simultaneously. If the two appear at the same time, they become mutually opposing to each other, and this condition becomes the definition of conflict in the present theory frame. The observing operation is realized as a simultaneous implement of ‘distinction-and-indication’. Distinction is the basis for the construction of the reality, and indication is the principle of building constructed reality. Finally, this article takes the aspects of description, explanation and evaluation in terms of reality construction on one side, and take the social meaning dimension, factual meaning dimension and temporal meaning dimension in terms of constructed reality on the other side, and propose conflict matrix through the combination of individual cases of the two sides. This conflict matrix could be used as a network of realistic analyses of the different dimensions of conflict.
Neo-liberal Globalization, Crisis of Capitalism, and the Transformation of Korean Development Model
This study tries to comprehend the socioeconomic transformation South Korea has undergone since the end of World War II, including its successful industrialization and economic crisis, from the perspective of Korean development model. At the same time, it presents an interpretation of how structural changes in the global capitalist system have affected the creation, crisis, and change in Korean development model. To be specific, the author suggests that at the center of such transformation lies a shift from ‘development project’ to ‘globalization project’. In this context, the historical capitalist process experienced by Korean society is identified with that of Western societies. As ‘the social psychology of European colonialism’ was disseminated throughout the globe, Korean society entered into the early stage of modernization. During the ‘Golden Age’ of western capitalism, an anomalous, evanescent historical period uprisen with the internationalization of capitalism, South Korea moved from agricultural society to modern industrial society spurred by state-led industrialization plan. South Korea secured rapid economic growth by forcing its economic drive towards heavy and chemical industry in the early 1970s, when western capitalism slipped into a downturn, a result of its strategic adjustment to global industrial restructuring at the time. It is noteworthy that the rise and fall of the Bretton Woods system and the functioning of Bretton Woods institutions were also paralleled with different operational strategies devised by the development project and globalization project. In addition, the transformation in political economical institutions at the global level after World War II was closely associated with a shift in US foreign strategy. South Korea’s success in export-oriented industrialization was apparently indebted to the switchover in US Asia strategy after 1965, triggered by the conflict between the US and India and South Korea’s close cooperation as to the Vietnam War. All in all, understood ultimately as economic growth, is a political goal rather than a natural process.
Seon Master Daehaeng’s Gendered/ Gender-transcendent Characteristic and Emptiness of Sex/Gender
This article reveals Seon Master Daehaeng’s gendered/gender-transcendent characteristic, while analyzing her gender-related Dharma talks in relation to the Buddhist concept of ‘emptiness of sex/gender.’ This inquiry is important in order to examine and change the reality of Korean Buddhism, which is working on a patriarchal and male-dominated dichotomy in contradiction to the Buddhist principles of gender equality. In Korean Seon Buddhist tradition, the history of prominent bhikkhuni has been erased. Seon Master Daehaeng transcends the gender dichotomy by embracing Bhikkuni and Bhikku, while establishing the new model of Seon Master beyond its masculine version.
This study reviews the previous studies of Seon Master Daehaeng and Hanmaum Seon Center, which she established. It emphasizes the importance of studying Korean Bhikkuni, by following feminist Buddhist studies. More importantly, ‘emptiness of sex/gender’ of Buddhism could reveal that the deterministic gender dichotomy is not fixed. Then, it explores that Seon Master Daehaeng’s gendered/gender-transcendent characteristic from the perspectives of outsiders, such as Buddhist believers, reporters, Bhikku etc. Daehaeng has taught that sex/gender is neither essential nor fixed, criticizing several discrimination of bhikkhuni or women. Her life and teachings can give theoretical resources, which go beyond the gender-dichotomy and the confrontational relation of sexes. Daehaeng thus opens up the new model of Seon Master in the gender-blinded Korean Buddhist tradition.
Two Opposing Perspectives on Technological Progress and Future Education: Arts of Living in a Free Society
This study finds the characteristics of technological progress in the so-called Fourth Industrial Revolution era from two opposing perspectives. One is the view of Skill-Biased Technological Change. This view sees education as a constant race against technological progress. The other is the new possibilities that this new technological advance opens to human social life. The possibility is that the economic production technology of artificial-intelligence-robot-automation, which has been achieved by the latest science and technology, allows us to move away in education from technology chasing and pursue the interdependence and self-creation as human evolutionary nature. It is the point of view that can led us to the era of freedom. Thus, this study questions the arguments of economists who hold firmly to the point of view of technology chasing as the goal of education. Then, from Aristotle to the most recent arguments, the technical discourse on the age of freedom for all human beings to pursue individuality and originality is examined. Such reviews culminate in the ongoing evolution of fully automated economic production, thanks to the latest technologies such as artificial intelligence, robotics and high-speed wireless Internet. The review also covers the changes that take place at the global level and at the local level of Korean society, including their impact on human social life. This paper then discusses how the nature of information technology at the core of the latest evolution of science and technology, while disturbing existing social life, has the potential to open up a life that is compatible with collaboration and creativity as human nature obtained by long evolution. Based on these arguments, we propose a direction and value for our future education preparing for the expansion of leisure and free time that might come to us like a thief. The core of the proposal is education to cultivate arts of living needed for human beings lives in a free society.
Myung-Sim-Bo-Gam and Civil Education in Primary Social Education
In modern society, individual desires tend to be the top priority. In modern society, the relationship between the individual and the community is on the line. The culture of sacrificing personal life or suppressing personal tastes for the sake of the community in the past is losing its power in modern society. However, the reality is that the lack of communication and the collapse of the community cannot be overlooked by this super-personalization. A vision of life that respects individual desires but enjoys duties and rights harmoniously in the community should be sought.
In this paper, I would like to explore this vision in civil education. Amid the rapidly changing social structure, various problems have emerged, including the relationship between individuals and society, rights and obligations as a member of the community, respect and guarantee of personal tastes, and compliance with public order and norms. An alternative to a fundamental solution to these problems can be explored in civil education. Here, I want to look at the theoretical basis of civil education in Myung-Sim-Bo-Gam. Although it is not an edited book for the purpose of civic education, it can help us find a theoretical foundation for civil education in that it can recognize the value of life and human relations as a selected textbook in various East Asian classics.
To this end, this paper will first analyze the status of civil education in primary social education, focusing on the present condition and necessity of elementary school education. Next, we will find the wisdom of civil education found in Myung-Sim-Bo-Gam. Next, we will develop ways to utilize the wisdom of civil education found in Myung-Sim-Bo-Gam in elementary social education classes. Finally, we will look at the meaning of this vision and exploration of civil education.
The job and employment-unemployment issues of young people who play an important role in shaping the future of a society are both individual and social problems. Achievement status in modern society is a sign of one's ability more than a status of acquisition. A major influence on future status is university education and university diplomas.
Through the list of the 2002 Seoul National University Alumni Association, which is a list that shows the occupational value system of Korean society, we checked which job the SNU students preferred. They see strong preferences for public office, low recognition of private companies, and relatively high ratings of large business groups. There are also ranks among public offices, such as the superiority of the central government to local governments, and the legislative and judicial branches are distinguished over the executive branch even in the same central government agencies. It also places great value on educational institutions, research institutes, and bureaucrats in terms of their admiration for past academic ability.
The traditional occupational values of Korea are in the order of academic, agriculture, engineering, and business. Businesses, then, are the last favorite of the job world. In modern times, businesses are a respected job, especially in large corporations. We interpreted this as a feudal state in the feudal age of the past in the modern society. The problems of employment for young people will require our values to reconsider the value of career view.