Karl Polanyi’s Social Freedom and Debt Recognition: The Vision of a New Moral Society
원용찬 Yong Chan Won
DOI: JANTVol.22(No.2) 1-47, 2019
Market capitalism and neoliberal economics, which have developed on the basis of the industrial age, face serious challenges. The commodity monetary theory of mainstream economics, which made the market economy a belief system, is also engulfed in fierce debate. Karl Polanyi ‘s substantive economy shows extensibility at the turn of the crisis symptoms of mainstream economics and the post - material paradigm. It is necessary to dismantle the integration of man and nature tied up with the market-monetary relationship and reintegrate into the domain of de-market and de-commodity relations. Karl Polanyi’s social freedom provides an important clue to attempts to renew the value of social integration of man and nature. Social freedom is the freedom to take on the duty and responsibility to others and to take on the consequences of their choice and action whether they are intended or socially, away from the economic freedoms of individuals isolated from society. The integrated pattern of debt recognition and reciprocity based on social freedoms will be a new operating principle for the substantive economy centered on dependence for his livlihood upon nature and his fellows. The means of payment of money in terms of reciprocity from the viewpoint of debt and obligation provide important clues to embed market economy into society and reorganize it into moral values. The paradigm of the substantive economy is the non-economic motive of moral behavior and social obligation as a chain of mutual dependence debt and counter-giving as dynamic energy. It is based on moral motive of debt, repayment, and social obligation as the principle of symmetry, which makes reciprocity as a strong point in the substantive economy and makes it dynamic by subordinating redistribution and exchange. Karl Polanyi is unique in that he sees money as a fictional commodity and rejects Marx ‘s labor theory of value or subjective utility value of new classical economics. The creation of social debt based on money and reciprocity and the means of payment of redistribution, ie, the use of a specific purpose money as a means of payment, as a social right, is the process of re-embedding the economy into society and at the same time protecting the society, It is also a double movement to do. The social freedom and substantive economic paradigm of Karl Polanyi is an important opportunity to overcome the mainstream economics of the industrial era and to selectively connect with the intangible values of digital and to move to the idea of a new society.
Fight against Me, and fight against Others: For a Communicative Personality
이하배 Lee Ha-bae
DOI: JANTVol.22(No.2) 49-88, 2019
The era of ‘Gapjil’ and ‘Euljil’, which is good at ‘bad fight’ but not good at ‘good fight’ is the era of which cannot ‘divide’ because of their overly ‘division’ between you and me or high and low. Gapjil which is one-directive forcing in ‘only I-am’ among the way of interaction between me and others, is ‘being bossy towards the weak’.
On the other hand, Euljil is ‘unconditional obedience towards the strong’, which is in ‘only you-are’. Euljil, which is unconditional obedience to the strong who bosses, includes the presumption that oneself is bossing oneself, nevertheless, this unconditionality is impossible to be entirely one directional and passive as ‘a tense status’ of unconditionality, Euljil, which is a kind of ‘active passiveness’ or ‘passive activeness’ is a kind of (bad) fight. In a bigger perspective, ‘bossing’, which is ‘one direction’ in Gapjil and ‘unconditionality’ of Euljil have the matching point of passiveness and activeness in the smaller perspective.
‘Bad denying’, which denies goodness, is the bad fight of Gapjil, Euljil, which denies Byungjil, the ‘side-by-side-together’. ‘Good denying,’ which denies badness, is ‘a good fight’ of Byungjil, which denies the un-communication of Gapjil, Euljil. ‘My Gapjil’ and ‘your Euljil’ between you and me or ‘bad fights’ of ‘your Gapjil’ and ‘my Euljil’ instigate and premise each other in pairs. And Byungjil, which denies one direction of obedience or forcing as characterizing as ‘a good fight’ of you or of me, is based from communicative personality, which directs ‘horizontal together’ of ‘I-am in you-are, you-are in I-am’ or ‘roundly side-by-side’.
From olden times say wise men to themselves or ‘many small people’ in the world the necessity of realization and overcoming of our own greed and prejudice, which are the basics of ‘bad fights’, due to its nature of disturbance for people to be a human and to be a (good) together. Self mastery, self-cultivating and asceticism is being educated of ‘a good fight against me’, which is an advanced fight of ‘good me’ who resists with ‘bad me’ who is greedy and biased to avoid ‘a bad fight against others’.
It is very common case to have ‘good becomes bad’ and ‘being becomes not-being’ in the power relationship between each other’s different interests or understandings. In the way of knowing and doing of asking, searching, knowing, and practising towards the way of ‘all-human, more-human’, to be a communicative personality, which doesn’t be shaken and collapsed in the human and material environment of shaking, changing or blurring the difference between being and not-being or should and shouldn’t, it is the most significant to posses the inner and outer presumptions of a ‘good communication culture’, which makes us possible to develop abilities of judgement and criticism to figure out what is right and wrong, being and not-being.
A Study about Reunification Plan through Comparison between the Toegye’s Ido-seil and the Self-reliance Ideology of North Korea
황상희 Hwang Sang-hee
DOI: JANTVol.22(No.2) 89-111, 2019
In North Korea’s Juche ideology, communism has been selected based on Marxism. Yet, North Korea has a system different from other communist countries. When this aspect is found from old Confucian customs, China and Vietnam can be taken as examples, but the emphasis on humanism or spontaneity is different from these two countries, too. It is because it’s possible only when understanding North Korea from the viewpoint of Confucianism of Joseon.
Korea accepted Confucianism in the 4th century and developed it as independent Confucianism. The differences between Chu-tzu and Toegye can be an example. While Chu-tzu regarded Li(理, truth) as without a definition, understanding or manipulation, Toegye defined it as something ‘manifesting(發)’ and ‘moving(動)’, and furthermore, said it ‘to reach(到)’. In Confucianism of Joseon, Li(理) presiding rather than fundamental was emphasized. That’s why Juche ideology is interpreted through the ideas of Toegye, the figure who made a synthesis of Joseon’s Confucianism. When it’s taken into consideration that both Kim Il-seong’s father and Hwang Jang-yeop’s father were teachers in Seodang, it can be understood where their theoretical background is from.
The Universality and Specificity of the Worship of North Korean Focused on Chondoism
박세준 Park Seijoon
DOI: JANTVol.22(No.2) 113-138, 2019
The purpose of this study is to reveal the universality and specificity of the personal worship of North Korea, Kim Ilsung and Kim’s Family. The study of North Korea tends to emphasize the speciality of the so-called “North Korean phenomenon ”. It is the true that the personal worship of Kim IlSung and Kim’ Family. However, the phenomenon of individual worship has not come from North Korea ’s special character but from the Soviet Stalin days. The historical approach and the comparative socialism approach were used as methodologies to achieve the purpose of this study. The historical approach emphasizes the uniqueness of North Korea, and the comparative socialism approach reveals the universality of the socialist state. According to this approach, we can confirm that the phenomenon of personal worship is a universal method used by the underdeveloped socialist countries. In particular, it confirmed that the tendency in China, Albania, Romania and North Korea, which had been de-Sovietized in the Soviet order of the Stalinist state, had increased. These countries share the common use of anti-Japanese and anti-Japanese struggle for personal worship. In addition, North Korea has developed a special characteristic of utilizing the religion of nationalism called Chondoism. Kim IlSung assessed the Chondoism as a progressive religion in that it values people rather than heaven and opposes feudal society. He has also achieved great success in his alliance with the Chondoism in the anti-Japanese armed struggle. He also used the idea of Chondoism to establish a one-man dictatorship and move on to a hereditary dictatorship. Not only did Kim Ilsung use the Chondoism, but he also did not hesitate to distort the activities of the Chondoism as his work.
Architectural Ideas of Tongdo Temple in the View of Biological Social Concept
문정필 Moon Jung-pil
DOI: JANTVol.22(No.2) 139-172, 2019
Eco-centric sociological discussion has started from sense of crisis which is caused by devastated natural environment by urbanization and industrialization which originated in the West. One among many alternatives is the establishment of the view of nature which inherent in the traditional East Asian thought. From this background, it is necessary to discuss our view of nature and establish eco-centric thought through our traditional architecture which is embodied in the philosophy of Confucianism, Buddhism and Zen thoughts.
This study aims to draw eco-centric thought which inherent in Tongdo temple and discuss the socio-ecological architecture that can be coexist with nature. As an interpretative method, the biological terms; Gene, Meme and Deme are used to integrate with Tongdo temple.
To discuss about sociological architecture along with biological factors is in order to premise that human beings are equal to other living things. This consciousness is intended to recognize the thought that can realize architectural behavior fundamentally. In addition, if the biological value of Tongdo temple is extracted from its history, tradition, religion and society, it is considered that it can present social and biological architectural ideas to accommodate the underlying, ethical and active ecological thinking to buildings and cities which are developing indiscreetly.
Therefore, the presentation of social and biological architecture through Tongdo temple could work as architectural methodology that would make aware all living things are coexist in an equal environment by including human society in ecological-centered thinking.
Interpretation and meaning of Confucianism in korean myth including female characters: In Baridegi and Jeju bonpuri cases
이미림 Lee Mirim
DOI: JANTVol.22(No.2) 173-199, 2019
Mythology has universality and fundamentality not limited to a particular period in terms of its being the prototype of our current thoughts. The universality of mythology can be seen as a mirror reflecting who we are now. In particular, the transmission process of a goddess in goddess myths resembles today’s females. Many perspectives of the study on female mythology say that the process of the constant changes in female mythology is the outcome of accepting the Confucian patriarchal order. Of course, the Confucian influences reinterpreted from the aspect of historical meanings can be also regarded as a Confucian aspect, yet, the unilateral viewpoint of seeing it as a Confucian own contradictory principle looks like a wrong interpretation, too. In the transition of mythological understanding that changed from a goddess to a god along with the change from a matriarchal society to a patriarchal one must the necessity of power in order to dominate production and maintain it have existed. While it’s a fact that the Confucian culture in Korea has created a lot of oppression and bonds upon women, more careful analytic study is required on from which aspect the Confucian culture has resulted. There are original aspects of Confucianism, and the parts that have been reinterpreted in the times and read improperly. Of course, whatever aspects the both have, they belong to Confucianism. However, what we shouldn’t forget in the transmission process of Korean female mythology is that as these procedures are complex and multilayered, they can be read in diverse ways, and that these aspects can be seen to reflect the present ourselves as females.